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PAGE  PAGE 1 Airplane Turbofan Engine Operation and Malfunctions Basic Familiarization for Flight Crews Chapter 1 General Principles PAGE  PAGE 38 Introduction Today's modern airplanes are powered by turbofan engines. These engines are quite reliable, providing years of trouble- free service. However, because of the rarity of turbofan engine malfunctions, and the limitations of simulating those malfunctions, many flight crews have felt unprepared to diagnose engine malfunctions that have occurred. The purpose of this text is to provide straightforward material to give flight crews the basics of airplane engine operational theory. This text will also provide pertinent information about malfunctions that may be encountered during the operation of turbofan- powered airplanes, especially those malfunctions that cannot be simulated well and may thus cause confusion. While simulators have greatly improved pilot training, many may not have been programmed to simulate the actual no...