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1 9TH INFORMAL ASIA-EUROPE MEETING (ASEM) SEMINAR ON HUMAN RIGHTS “Human Rights in Criminal Justice Systems” Strasbourg, France 18-20 February 2009 SEMINAR REPORT By: Dato’ Param Cumaraswamy Former United Nations Special Rapporteur on the Independence of Judges and Lawyers & Manfred Nowak United Nations Special Rapporteur on Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment Organised by In co-operation with the European Court of Human Rights, the International Institute of Human Rights & the University of Strasbourg With the support of the European Commission 2 I. Executive Summary1 The criminal justice system in a democratic society, adhering to the rule of law, has to carefully balance different and sometimes conflicting interests: firstly, the legitimate interest of the State in the observance of national laws, the fight against crime and the maintenance of internal security; secondly, the interest of the victims of crime and abuse; and, thirdly, the rights of the accused or t...