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1 Chinese Literature as Part of World Literature Karl-Heinz Pohl The sciences – according to a common understanding – possess a universalistic claim. As a rule, we try to establish universally valid theories and definitions beyond particular cultural phenomenal differences. But the sciences are also a modern European invention. And so it is not surprising that, everywhere in the world, scientific concepts and categories are determined on the basis of one particular cultural – namely European/American – provenance. This trend is reinforced by the fact that, in the course of modernization, almost everywhere in the world European/American views have been adopted unquestioningly as standards. The following assessment which is by an African could just as well apply to a Chinese: Which European could ever praise himself (or complain about) having put as much time, studies and effort into the learning of another ‘traditional’ society as the thousands of Third-World intellectuals who have stud...