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1 Student Study Guide for Criminological Theories: Introduction, Evaluation, Application Sixth Edition By Ronald L. Akers and Christine S. Sellers Prepared by: Eric See, Methodist University Elicia Kieser, Methodist University New York Oxford OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS 2013 2 Chapter 1 Introduction to Criminological Theory Terms Causality. A concept more applicable to the hard sciences. Does the appearance of X cause effect Y? In a perfect relationship, the appearance of X would always cause the effect Y each and every time the relationship is seen. Empirical Validity. This is the most important factor in evaluating a theory, and means that the theory has been supported by research evidence. Ideology. A belief system and a set of core values or philosophy. In a pure sense, an ideology states or explains how things should be, and a theory explains how things actually are. Internal Logical Consistency. A theory needs to be presented in a logical manner and to have clearly stated proposition...