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2175American Journal of Botany 100(11): 2175–2182. 2013. American Journal of Botany 100(11): 2175–2182, 2013 ; http://www.amjbot.org/ © 2013 Botanical Society of America Leaf shape is one of the most diverse traits among plant spe-cies, and there is a long history of investigation of the physio-logical, ecological, and evolutionary consequences of this variation (reviewed by Nicotra et al., 2011 ). Given that leaves are the primary photosynthetic surface of most plants, it is gen-erally accepted that variation in leaf shape is likely to have evo-lutionary and ecological consequences. A great deal of literature focuses on the infl uence of leaf shape on thermoregulation un-der hot vs. cool or arid vs. mesic conditions (or some combina-tion thereof); for example, highly dissected or complex leaves are thought to be more effective at maintaining cooler leaf sur-faces, and avoiding excessive water loss ( Givnish and Vermeij, 1976 ; Givnish, 1988 ). Comparatively fewer studies examine the im...