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4Fromholistictodiscretespeechsounds:theblindsnowXake-makerhypothesisPierre-YvesOudeyer4.1ThespeechcodeSoundisamediumusedbyhumanstocarryinformationwhentheyspeaktoeachother.Theexistenceofthiskindofmediumisaprerequisiteforlanguage.Itisorganizedintoacode,calledspeech,whichprovidesarepertoireofformsthatissharedineachlanguagecommunityandthatallowsitsuserstoencodecontentinformation.Thiscodeismainlyconventional,andthusintuitivelyrequirescoordinatedinteractionandcommunicationtobeestablished.How,then,mightaspeechcodebeformedpriortotheexistenceofcommunicationandoflanguage-likeinteractionpatterns?Moreover,thehumanspeechcodeischaracterizedbyseveralpropertieswhichwehavetoexplain.Herearesomeofthem:Property1:Discretenessandsystematicre-use.Speechsoundsarepho-nemicallycodedasopposedtoholisticallycoded.Thisimpliestwoaspects:(i)ineachlanguage,thecontinuumofpossiblesoundsisbrokenintodiscreteunits;(ii)theseunitsaresystematicallyre-usedtobuildhigher-levelstructuresofsounds,likesyllables.Forexample,inarticul...