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CHAPTER 6. PISA 2018 GLOBAL COMPETENCE FRAMEWORK │ 165 PISA 2018 ASSESSMENT AND ANALYTICAL FRAMEWORK © OECD 2019 6. PISA 2018 Global Competence Framework Twenty-first century students live in an interconnected, diverse and rapidly changing world. Emerging economic, digital, cultural, demographic and environmental forces are shaping young people’s lives around the planet and increasing their intercultural encounters on a daily basis. This complex environment presents both an opportunity and a challenge. Young people today must not only learn to participate in a more interconnected world but also appreciate and benefit from cultural differences. Developing a global and intercultural outlook is a process – a lifelong process – that education can shape (Barrett et al., 2014[1]; Boix Mansilla and Jackson, 2011[2]; Deardorff, 2009[3]; UNESCO, 2013[4]; 2014[5]; 2016[6]). This section presents the framework for how the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) measures global compe...