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On his first day in office, President Donald Trump issued an executive order direct-ing federal agencies to take all available steps to undermine the Affordable Care Act (ACA).1 Since that day, the Trump administration and its allies have tried to repeal or weaken the ACA using all three branches of the federal government. First, they tried to repeal the entire law through the legislative process. When those efforts failed, their 2017 tax bill zeroed out the ACA’s individual mandate penalty, directly undermining the marketplaces. Because the mandate encourages healthier people to enroll in the market-places, eliminating its penalty increased premiums in the individual market. Second, 18 Republican attorneys general and governors—with the support of the Trump adminis-tration—are yet again asking the federal courts to overturn the entire ACA. Third, the Trump administration has used a wide range of administrative actions—including rule-making—to chip away at the ACA’s consumer protection...