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International Journal of Molecular SciencesEditorialBotanyinMolecularEra:AModernSciencewithAncientRootsMarcelloIritiDepartmentofAgriculturalandFoodSciences,MilanStateUniversity,viaG.Celoria2,20133Milan,Italy;[email protected];Tel.:+39-025-0316766;Fax:+39-025-036781AcademicEditor:JianhuaZhuReceived:7March2016;Accepted:9March2016;Published:10March2016Botany—thestudyofplantlife—isanancientscience.SinceTheophrastus(371–287BC),consideredthe“fatherofbotany”andauthorofthetwoseminaltreatisesOntheHistoryofPlantsandOntheCausesofPlants,thisscienceprogressedwithhumanity,greatlycontributingtoitsdevelopmentandadvancement:foodplantsarethenourishmentforhumanandlivestock,fibreplantsareusedfortextileandpaperproduction,medicinalplantsrepresentanunlimitedsourceofpharmacologicallyactiveingredientswhereasforestryspeciesprovidebuildingmaterialandfuel.Inaddition,plants,particularlyrainforests,possessavaluableenvironmentalsignificanceasatmosphericcarbondioxidesinks,thuscontributingtooffsetglobalclimatechan...