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CR03CH05_Matsueda ARjats.cls December 3, 2019 15:0Annual Review of CriminologyBroken Windows, InformalSocial Control, and Crime:Assessing Causality inEmpirical StudiesCharles C. Lanfear, Ross L. Matsueda,and Lindsey R. BeachDepartment of Sociology, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98121, USA;email: [email protected] Rev. Criminol. 2020. 3:97–120First published as a Review in Advance onOctober 7, 2019The Annual Review of Criminology is online atcriminol.annualreviews.orghttps://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-criminol-011419-041541Copyright © 2020 by Annual Reviews.All rights reservedKeywordsbroken windows, disorder, informal social control, collective efficacy,causality, potential outcomes, counterfactualsAbstractAn important criminological controversy concerns the proper causal rela-tionships between disorder, informal social control, and crime. The brokenwindows thesis posits that neighborhood disorder increases crime directlyand indirectly by undermining neighborhood informa...