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PERSPECTIVEEvaluatingphaseseparationinlivecells:diagnosis,caveats,andfunctionalconsequencesDavidT.McSwiggen,1,2MustafaMir,1XavierDarzacq,1,2andRobertTjian1,31DepartmentofMolecularandCellBiology,UniversityofCaliforniaBerkeley,California94720,USA;2CaliforniaInstituteofRegenerativeMedicineCenterofExcellence,UniversityofCaliforniaBerkeley,California94720,USA;3HowardHughesMedicalInstitute,UniversityofCaliforniaBerkeley,California94720,USATheideathatliquid–liquidphaseseparation(LLPS)maybeageneralmechanismbywhichmoleculesinthecom-plexcellularmilieumayself-organizehasgeneratedmuchexcitementandfervorinthecellbiologycommunity.Whilethisconceptisnotnew,itsrisetopreeminencehasresultedinrenewedinterestinthemechanismsthatshapeanddrivediversecellularself-assemblyprocessesfromgeneexpressiontocelldivisiontostressresponses.Invitrobiochemicaldatahavebeeninstrumentalinderiv-ingsomeofthefundamentalprinciplesandmoleculargrammarbywhichbiologicalmoleculesmayphasesepa-rate,andthemolecularbasisoftheseinteraction...