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Federal Agency Aquaculture Profile Series U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) EPA Regulations Affecting Aquaculture Operations: Clean Water Act (CWA) NPDES Permits: The National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) program was created under the federal Clean Water Act to protect and improve water quality by regulating operations with point source discharges of pollutants into waters of the United States. These operations are required to obtain coverage under NPDES permits (40 CFR §122.2). An NPDES permit, issued by either EPA or an authorized state/territory, contains industry-specific technology-based and/or water-quality-based limits and establishes pollutant monitoring and reporting requirements to protect the quality of surface waters. An effluent guideline (technology based limit) has been developed for certain concentrated aquatic animal production (CAAP) facilities (40 CFR §451). The CAAP effluent guideline applies to the facilities that produce 100,000 pounds o...