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Bangkok OfficeLiterature ReviewThe Culture of Testing:Socio-cultural drivers and the effects on youth in the Asia-Pacific regionIntroductionIn the Asia-Pacific region, a growing “culture of testing” has seen many countries striving to increase levels ofstudent learning achievement as a core focus of their education policies and as a perceived measure of theireducation system’s performance. What is this culture of testing? In many countries students face increasingpressures to perform and succeed at school, mainly in order to pass examinations (like university entranceexams). High-stakes exams place great consequences on learners: transition, graduation, entrance to highereducation, entrance to better schools, and entrance to better jobs. These exams not only offer high-stakes tostudents, but can extend to teachers, schools, and families, as the test results can impact funding andrecognition. While the existence of these exams may be rationalized as efforts to enhance educational qualit...