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INTRODUCTIONMost membrane-associated proteins spanthe bilayer, and many transmembrane (TM)proteins are involved in the formation of aque-ous channels or pores through the membrane.This class of proteins includes polypeptideswith very diverse functions, ranging from theporins that passively transport small moleculesand ions (1)to the translocon in the endoplas-mic reticulum (ER) membrane (2)and thetranslocases in the mitochondrial membranesPore-Forming Protein Structure Analysis in Membranes Using Multiple IndependentFluorescence TechniquesAlejandro P. Heuck1and Arthur E. Johnson*,1,21Department of Medical Biochemistry and Genetics, Texas A&M University System Health Science Center, College Station, TX 77843-1114; and 2Departments of Chemistry, and of Biochemistry and Biophysics, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77843AbstractAlarge number of transmembrane proteins form aqueous pores or channels in the phospho-lipid bilayer, but the structural bases of pore formation and assembl...