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Portrayal of personality in Victorian novels reflects modern research findingsbut amplifies the significance of agreeableness qJohn A. Johnson a,⇑, Joseph Carroll b , Jonathan Gottschall c , Daniel Kruger da Department of Psychology, Pennsylvania State University—DuBois, United Statesb Department of English, University of Missouri—St. Louis, United Statesc Department of English, Washington & Jefferson College, United Statesd Prevention Research Center, University of Michigan, United Statesa r t i c l e i n f oArticle history:Available online xxxxKeywords:Adaptive functionFictionLiteratureNarrativeFive Factor Modela b s t r a c tAll literature embodies an implicit theory of personality and human nature (Hogan, 1976). The researchdescribed here investigates the implicit personality theory embedded in the behavior of 435 characters in143 canonical Victorian novels. Characters were rated on the Web by 519 scholars and students of 19th-century British literature. Ratings included the charac...