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BE14CH07-Nelson ARI 9 April 2012 11:50REVIEWSINADVANCESculpting Organs: MechanicalRegulation of TissueDevelopmentCeleste M. Nelson 1,2 and Jason P. Gleghorn11 Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, and 2 Department of Molecular Biology,Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544; email: [email protected],[email protected] Rev. Biomed. Eng. 2012. 14:129–54The Annual Review of Biomedical Engineering isonline at bioeng.annualreviews.orgThis article’s doi:10.1146/annurev-bioeng-071811-150043Copyright c© 2012 by Annual Reviews.All rights reserved1523-9829/12/0815-0129$20.00Keywordsbranching morphogenesis, tension, mechanotransduction, patterning,morphogen, gradientAbstractThe ramified architectures of organs such as the mammary gland and lungare generated through branching morphogenesis, a developmental processthrough which individual cells bud and pinch off of pre-existing epithe-lial sheets. Although specified by signaling programs, organ developmentrequir...