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Page1Semester IIntroduction to Linguistics (40+10 Marks)Code: A1Module IScope and nature of linguistics; Branches of linguistics; Language and Communication.Definition of language; Characteristics of language.Theories regarding the origin of language.Levels of language and their hierarchy; phonological, morphological, syntactic and semantic.Language relation: genetic, areal, typological and morphological.Language: spoken language and written modes and relation between them; Writing systems:evolution of writing systems.Concepts of Syntagmatic and Pardigmatic Relations; Synchronic and Diachronic relations;Competence and Performance; Innateness hypothesis; Langue and Parole.Language universals and specific properties of languageModule IILanguage variations: Dialect, Idiolect and Language; Dialect geography and isoglosses; Register,Style, Code, Sociolect; Pidgins and Creoles.Standardisation of language: processes of standardization.Language as a system of communication: Communicative funct...