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SymbolicExpressionandtheOriginalMeaningoftheFirstAmendmentEUGENEVOLOKH*TABLEOFCONTENTSINTRODUCTION..........................................1057I.SYMBOLICEXPRESSIONINLATE-1700SANDEARLY-1800SSPEECHRESTRICTIONLAW....................................1063II.SYMBOLICEXPRESSIONINLATE-1700SANDEARLY-1800SDISCUSSIONSOFCONSTITUTIONALLAW.....................1068III.“FREEDOMOFSPEECH,OROFTHEPRESS”ASTHE“RIGHTTOSPEAK,TOWRITE,ORTOPUBLISH,”INCLUDINGSYMBOLICEXPRESSION....1079CONCLUSION............................................1083INTRODUCTIONTheFirstAmendmentprotects“speech”and“press,”not“expression”:sosomeargue,condemningtheCourt’ssymbolicexpressioncases.JudgeRobertBorkwritesthat“burningaflagisnotspeechandshouldnotfallunderFirstAmendmentprotection.”1SenatorsDianneFeinsteinandOrrinHatchagree,2asdomanyjournalists,activists,andcommentators.3Otherssimilarlyreasonthat*ProfessorofLaw,UCLASchoolofLaw([email protected]).©2009,EugeneVolokh.ManythankstoStuartBanner,SteveCalabresi,MichaelKentCurtis,ToddGaziano,...