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Psychological Science2014, Vol. 25(1) 38 –46© The Author(s) 2013Reprints and permissions: sagepub.com/journalsPermissions.navDOI: 10.1177/0956797613485092pss.sagepub.comResearch ArticleWhat determines how things look? According to a tradi-tional view of human visual perception, the processes responsible for computing basic visual properties, such as the lightness of a colored patch or the spatial layout of a room, proceed without any direct influence from higher-level cognitive states—for example, from knowledge about the world, desires for how the world should be, or the ability to act on the world (Pylyshyn, 1999). On this view, many aspects of visual processing are driven largely or only by the patterns of light striking the eyes and are thus informationally encapsulated (Fodor, 1983) and cog-nitively impenetrable (Pylyshyn, 1984).This view of visual perception is motivated by at least two related and ubiquitous sorts of evidence. First, many models of visual processes have been dev...