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Journal of Theoretical Biology 480 (2019) 1–12 Contents lists available at ScienceDirect Journal of Theoretical Biology journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/jtb The joint evolution of cooperation and competition Koichi Ito ∗, Michael Doebeli Department of Zoology, University of British Columbia, 4200-6270 University Blvd. Vancouver, B.C., V6T 1Z4, Canada a r t i c l e i n f o Article history: Received 5 April 2019 Revised 4 July 2019 Accepted 15 July 2019 Available online 16 July 2019 Keywords: Public goods Polymorphism Division of rewards Tug-of-war game Continuous snowdrift game a b s t r a c t In nature, cooperation among individuals is often accompanied by competition among the same individu- als for the cooperatively produced rewards. In such a situation, the evolution of cooperative and compet- itive investments influences each other, but previous theoretical studies mostly focused on either coop- eration or competition. Here we consider a generic situation in which individua...