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RESEARCHARTICLEOpenAccessVerbalandnon-verbalcommunicationskillsincludingempathyduringhistorytakingofundergraduatemedicalstudentsDanielaVogel,MarcoMeyerandSigridHarendza*AbstractBackground:Verbalandnon-verbalaspectsofcommunicationaswellasempathyareknowntohaveanimportantimpactonthemedicalencounter.Theaimofthestudywastoanalyzehowwellfinalyearundergraduatemedicalstudentsuseskillsofverbalandnon-verbalcommunicationduringhistory-takingandwhethertheseaspectsofcommunicationcorrelatewithempathyandgender.Methods:Duringathreestepsperformanceassessmentsimulatingthefirstdayofaresident30medicalfinalyearstudentstookhistoriesoffivesimulatedpatientsresultingin150videosofphysician-patientencounters.Thesevideoswereanalyzedbyexternalratingwithanewlydevelopedobservationscalefortheverbalandnon-verbalcommunicationandwiththevalidatedCARE-questionnaireforempathy.One-wayANOVA,t-testsandbivariatecorrelationswereusedforstatisticalanalyses.Results:Femalestudentsshowedsignicantlyhigherscoresforverbalcommunicationint...