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ARTICLESWho’s Afraid of the APA? What the Patent SystemCan Learn from Administrative LawS TUART M INOR B ENJAMIN AND A RTI K. RAI*INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 270I. U SING VALIDITY TO IMPLEMENT THE GOALS OF PATENT L AW . . . . . . 274A. THE GOALS OF PATENT LAW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 274B. THE INQUIRY INTO PATENT VALIDITY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 276II. T HE PTO AND A DMINISTRATIVE LAW DOCTRINE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 279A. PATENT LAW AND THE APA: GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS . . . . . . . . 280B. APPLYING ADMINISTRATIVE LAW DOCTRINE TO PTO ACTIONS . . . . 2841. Factual Determinations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2852. Legal Determinations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2933. Policy Decisions and Exercises of Discretion . . . . . . . . . 301III. COMPARATIVE INSTITUTIONAL A NALYSIS AND JUDICIAL REVIEW . . . . 308A. JUDICIAL REVIEW GENER...